North Korean leader Kim Jong-un has observed the test firing of a new type of tactical guided weapon aimed at boosting the country’s nuclear capabilities, the North’s KCNA state news agency reported on Sunday.

The report comes amid signs North Korea could soon resume nuclear testing according to South Korean and U.S. officials and after Kim broke a self-imposed moratorium on intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM) testing with a launch last month.

South Korea’s military said on Sunday it had detected two projectiles launched on Saturday from the North’s east coast  toward the sea. The projectiles flew about 110 kilometres with an apogee of 25 kilometres and maximum speed of less  than Mach 4, indicating they were short-range missiles.

The KCNA report gave no details on the launch but linked it to the North’s nuclear objectives.

“The new-type tactical guided weapon system … is of great significance in drastically improving the firepower of the  front-line long-range artillery units and enhancing the efficiency in the operation of tactical nukes,” KCNA said.

Missiles designed to evade defences

North Korea has been developing short-range ballistic missiles that analysts say are designed to evade missile defences and strike targets in the South in the event of a war.

On April 5, Kim Yo-jong, the powerful sister of leader Kim, said North Korea opposes war but would use nuclear weapons to strike South Korea if attacked, in a warning seen aimed at the South’s incoming conservative president, Yoon Suk-yeol.

A Yoon spokesperson, Bae Hyun-jin, said there was nothing new or surprising in the North’s “show of force” as a new  administration comes in.

This undated handout picture released by KCNA on Sunday purports to show the test-fire of a new-type tactical guided weapon. (KCNA/KNS/AFP/Getty Image)

South Korea’s current president Moon Jae-in, who will leave office on May 10, has received real-time briefings on the  North’s missile launch, his office said.

Ankit Panda, senior fellow at the U.S.-based Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, said the weapon appears to be the North’s first tactical nuclear weapons delivery system, while pointing to indications of work to restore North Korea’s Punggye-ri nuclear test site.

“You don’t have to be particularly imaginative to put this two and two together,” Panda said.

North able to miniaturize nuclear weapons

U.S. and South Korean officials have noted activity at the Punggye-ri site which could be preparations for a test, although the timing and nature of that were unclear.

As early as 2017, the U.S. Defence Intelligence Agency assessed that North Korea was able to miniaturize nuclear  weapons across the spectrum of its missiles, from short-range ballistic missiles to ICBMs.

Kim Jong-un in January 2021 said the country was able to “miniaturize, lighten and standardize nuclear weapons and to  make them tactical ones.” He also outlined goals of developing other weapons such as hypersonic missiles and spy satellites, which have been tested this year.

Duyeon Kim, a North Korea expert at the U.S.-based Center for a New American Security, said the timing could be taken as a protest against anticipated joint U.S.-South Korea military drills.

The United States and South Korea plan to launch the annual springtime exercise on Monday for a nine-day run, South Korea’s Joint Chiefs of Staff said.

On Saturday the U.S. 2nd Infantry Division, based in South Korea, shared photos of troops test-firing a multiple launch  rocket system, although the timing of the event was not indicated.

A U.S. Defence Department spokesperson on Sunday acknowledged the latest missile test. “We are aware of the North  Korean statement that they conducted a test of a long-range artillery system,” Lt. Col. Marty Meiners said.

U.S. nuclear envoy Sung Kim will visit Seoul on Monday to discuss a response to the North’s recent missile launches with his South Korean counterparts.

Kim has said the United States is open to talks without preconditions but Pyongyang has rebuffed those overtures,  accusing Washington of hostile policies evidenced by sanctions and military drills.

On Friday, North Korea celebrated the 110th anniversary of the birth of state founder Kim Il-sung.